Human Element Analysing Process (HEAP)
The Human Element Analysing Process (HEAP) is a practical tool, designed to address the human element, to be used for consideration of maritime and environmental protection issues at IMO, and provides a structured approach for the proper consideration of the human element when developing provisions. It is intended to assist regulators in ensuring that all the human element aspects related to the ship and its equipment, the master and crew, training, management ashore and on board, and work environment conditions have been taken into consideration when introducing or amending IMO instruments.
MSC 74 and MEPC 47 approved in 2001 and 2002 respectively Guidance on the use of Human Element Analysing Process (HEAP) and Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) in the IMO rule making process (MSC/Circ.1022 – MEPC/Circ.391) and Guidelines for Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) for use in the IMO rule-making process (MSC/Circ.1023 - MEPC/Circ.392).
MSC 91 and MEPC 65 reviewed in 2012 and 2013 respectively the aforementioned Guidance in the light of the experience gained with their application and approved the Guidelines for the application of Human Element Analysing Process (HEAP) to the IMO rule-making process, and approved the Guidelines for the application of the Human Element Analysing Process (HEAP) to the IMO rule-making process (MSC-MEPC.2/Circ.13).
HEAP is broad in application and not to be seen as any kind of replacement for an FSA study.
Formal Safety Assessment (FSA)
Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) is a structured and systematic methodology, aimed at enhancing maritime safety, including protection of life, health, the marine environment and property, by using risk and cost/benefit assessments.
FSA can be used as a tool to help in the evaluation of new regulations for maritime safety and protection of marine environment or making a comparison between existing and possibly improved regulations, with a view to achieving a balance between the various technical and operational issues, including the human element, and between maritime safety or protection of marine environment and costs.
The decision makers at IMO, through FSA, will be able to appreciate the effect of proposed regulatory changes in terms of benefits (e.g. expected reduction of lives lost or of pollution) and related costs incurred for the industry as a whole and for individual parties affected by the decision. FSA should facilitate development of regulatory changes equitable to the various parties thus aiding the achievement of consensus.
Within FSA the human element is addressed both by the requirement of inclusion of human element experts during hazard identification, and during the execution of the risk assessment, where a set of scientific methods, known under the heading Human Reliability Analysis (HRA), is applied. HEAP is not one of these HRA methods
IMO technical bodies are now charged with addressing human element when deliberating new and existing provisions.
MSC 98 and MEPC 72 approved in 2017 and 2018 respectively the Revised guidelines for Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) for use in the IMO rule-making process (MSC-MEPC.2/Circ.12/Rev.2).