Energy Efficiency Measures

The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) was made mandatory for new ships and the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) for all ships at MEPC 62 (July 2011) with the adoption of amendments to MARPOL Annex VI (resolution MEPC.203(62)), by Parties to MARPOL Annex VI. This was the first legally binding climate change treaty to be adopted since the Kyoto Protocol. 

Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI)

The EEDI for new ships is the most important technical measure and aims at promoting the use of more energy efficient (less polluting) equipment and engines. The EEDI requires a minimum energy efficiency level per capacity mile (e.g. tonne mile) for different ship type and size segments. Since 1 January 2013, following an initial two year phase zero, new ship design needs to meet the reference level for their ship type. The level is to be tightened incrementally every five years, and so the EEDI is expected to stimulate continued innovation and technical development of all the components influencing the fuel efficiency of a ship from its design phase. The EEDI is a non-prescriptive, performance-based mechanism that leaves the choice of technologies to use in a specific ship design to the industry. As long as the required energy efficiency level is attained, ship designers and builders are free to use the most cost-efficient solutions for the ship to comply with the regulations. The EEDI provides a specific figure for an individual ship design, expressed in grams of carbon dioxide (CO2) per ship's capacity-mile (the smaller the EEDI the more energy efficient ship design) and is calculated by a formula based on the technical design parameters for a given ship. 

The CO2 reduction level (grams of CO2 per tonne mile) for the first phase is set to 10% and will be tightened every five years to keep pace with technological developments of new efficiency and reduction measures. Reduction rates have been established until the period 2025 and onwards when a 30% reduction is mandated for applicable ship types calculated from a reference line representing the average efficiency for ships built between 2000 and 2010. The EEDI is developed for the largest and most energy intensive segments of the world merchant fleet and embraces emissions from new ships covering the following ship types: tankers, bulk carriers, gas carriers, general cargo ships, container ships, refrigerated cargo carriers and combination carriers. In 2014, MEPC adopted amendments to the EEDI regulations to extend the scope of EEDI to: LNG carriers, ro-ro cargo ships (vehicle carriers), ro-ro cargo ships; ro-ro passenger ships and cruise passenger ships having non-conventional propulsion. These amendments mean that ship types responsible for approximately 85% of the CO2 emissions from international shipping are incorporated under the international regulatory regime.

Since 2012, Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) adopted/approved or amended following important guidelines aimed at assisting the implementation of the mandatory regulations on Energy Efficiency for Ships in MARPOL Annex VI:

  • 2014 Guidelines on survey and certification of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI), as amended
  • 2014 Guidelines on the method of calculation of the attained Energy Efficiency Design Index for new ships, as amended
  • 2013 Guidelines for calculation of reference lines for use with the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI)
  • 2013 Guidelines for calculation of reference lines for use with the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for cruise passenger ships having non-conventional propulsion
  • 2013 Interim guidelines for determining minimum propulsion power to maintain the manoeuvrability of ships in adverse conditions, as amended
  • 2016 Guidelines for the development of a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP)
  • 2013 Guidance on treatment of innovative energy efficiency technologies for calculation and verification of the attained EEDI
  • Interim Guidelines for the calculation of the coefficient fw for decrease in ship speed in a representative sea condition for trial use

The above Guidelines and resolutions are available here 

Finalization and adoption / approval of the supporting guidelines / guidance was a significant achievement which provides sufficient lead time for Administrations and industry to prepare. The guidelines will support Member States in their uniform implementation of the new chapter 4 of MARPOL Annex VI Regulations for the prevention of air pollution from ships.

Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) and Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI)

The Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) is an operational measure that establishes a mechanism to improve the energy efficiency of a ship in a cost-effective manner. The SEEMP also provides an approach for shipping companies to manage ship and fleet efficiency performance over time using, for example, the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI) as a monitoring tool. The guidance on the development of the SEEMP for new and existing ships incorporates best practices for fuel efficient ship operation, as well as guidelines for voluntary use of the EEOI for new and existing ships (MEPC.1/Circ.684). The EEOI enables operators to measure the fuel efficiency of a ship in operation and to gauge the effect of any changes in operation, e.g. improved voyage planning or more frequent propeller cleaning, or introduction of technical measures such as waste heat recovery systems or a new propeller. The SEEMP urges the ship owner and operator at each stage of the plan to consider new technologies and practices when seeking to optimise the performance of a ship. 

Data collection system for fuel oil consumption of ships

MEPC 70 (October 2016) adopted mandatory MARPOL Annex VI requirements for ships to record and report their fuel oil consumption, by resolution MEPC.278(70). Further detailed information is provided here.

In relation to the amendments to MARPOL Annex VI on the mandatory data collection systems for fuel oil consumption of ships, MEPC 70 also adopted the 2016 Guidelines for the development of a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP), by resolution MEPC.282(70).  Under the amendments to MARPOL Annex VI, on or before 31 December 2018, in the case of a ship of 5,000 gross tonnage and above, the SEEMP shall include a description of the methodology that will be used to collect the data and the processes that will be used to report the data to the ship's flag State.

Model Course for energy efficient operation ships

IMO, together with the World Maritime University (WMU) has been developing a model course on SEEMP promoting the energy efficient operation of ships. The first draft of the model course was submitted to MEPC 62. It provides general background on the climate change issue and IMO’s related work and aims at building the different operational and technical tools into a manageable course programme, which will promulgate best practice throughout all sectors of the industry. The Course will help create benchmarks against which operators can assess their own performance. The purpose of the IMO model courses is to assist training providers and their teaching staff in organizing and introducing new training courses, or in enhancing, updating or supplementing existing training material, so that the quality and effectiveness of the training courses may thereby be improved.

MEPC 62 agreed that the draft model course was an excellent start to providing a structured training course. Following consideration by MEPC 63 to MEPC 65, IMO, in 2014, published IMO Model Course on Energy Efficient Operation of Ships (reference ET405E).