Although air pollution from ships does not have the direct cause and effect associated with, for example, an oil spill incident, it causes a cumulative effect that contributes to the overall air quality problems encountered by populations in many areas, and also affects the natural environment, such as tough acid rain.
MARPOL Annex VI, first adopted in 1997, limits the main air pollutants contained in ships exhaust gas, including sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrous oxides (NOx), and prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances (ODS). MARPOL Annex VI also regulates shipboard incineration, and the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from tankers.
Following entry into force of MARPOL Annex VI on 19 May 2005, the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), at its 53rd session (July 2005), agreed to revise MARPOL Annex VI with the aim of significantly strengthening the emission limits in light of technological improvements and implementation experience. As a result of three years examination, MEPC 58 (October 2008) adopted the revised MARPOL Annex VI and the associated NOx Technical Code 2008, which entered into force on 1 July 2010.
The main changes to MARPOL Annex VI are a progressive reduction globally in emissions of SOx, NOx and particulate matter and the introduction of emission control areas (ECAs) to reduce emissions of those air pollutants further in designated sea areas.
Under the revised MARPOL Annex VI, the global sulphur limit will be reduced from current 3.50% to 0.50%, effective from 1 January 2020, subject to a feasibility review to be completed no later than 2018.
MEPC 70 (October 2016) considered an assessment of fuel oil availability to inform the decision to be taken by the Parties to MARPOL Annex VI, and decided that the fuel oil standard (0.50% sulphur limit) shall become effective on 1 January 2020.
The limits applicable in ECAs for SOx and particulate matter were reduced to 0.10%, from 1 January 2015.
Progressive reductions in NOx emissions from marine diesel engines installed on ships are also included, with a "Tier II" emission limit for engines installed on a ship constructed on or after 1 January 2011; and a more stringent "Tier III" emission limit for engines installed on a ship constructed on or after 1 January 2016 operating in ECAs (North American Emission Control Area and the U.S. Caribbean Sea Emission Control Area). Marine diesel engines installed on a ship constructed on or after 1 January 1990 but prior to 1 January 2000 are required to comply with "Tier I" emission limits, if an approved method for that engine has been certified by an Administration.
The revised NOx Technical Code 2008 includes a new chapter based on the agreed approach for regulation of existing (pre-2000) engines established in MARPOL Annex VI, provisions for a direct measurement and monitoring method, a certification procedure for existing engines and test cycles to be applied to Tier II and Tier III engines.
MEPC 66 (April 2014) adopted amendments to regulation 13 of MARPOL Annex VI regarding the effective date of NOx Tier III standards.
The amendments provide for the Tier III NOx standards to be applied to a marine diesel engine that is installed on a ship constructed on or after 1 January 2016 and which operates in the North American Emission Control Area or the U.S. Caribbean Sea Emission Control Area that are designated for the control of NOx emissions.
In addition, the Tier III requirements would apply to installed marine diesel engines when operated in other emission control areas which might be designated in the future for Tier III NOx control. Tier III would apply to ships constructed on or after the date of adoption by the Marine Environment Protection Committee of such an emission control area, or a later date as may be specified in the amendment designating the NOx Tier III emission control area.
Further, the Tier III requirements do not apply to a marine diesel engine installed on a ship constructed prior to 1 January 2021 of less than 500 gross tonnage, of 24 m or over in length, which has been specifically designed and is used solely, for recreational purposes.
Revisions to the regulations for ozone-depleting substances, volatile organic compounds, shipboard incineration, reception facilities and fuel oil quality were also made with regulations on fuel oil availability added.
The revised measures are expected to have a significant beneficial impact on the atmospheric environment and on human health, particularly for those people living in port cities and coastal communities.