Regulations for the prevention of pollution by sewage are contained in MARPOL Annex IV.
Sewage – the problem
The discharge of raw sewage into the sea can create a health hazard. Sewage can also lead to oxygen depletion and can be an obvious visual pollution in coastal areas - a major problem for countries with tourist industries.
The main sources of human-produced sewage are land-based - such as municipal sewers or treatment plants. However, the discharge of sewage into the sea from ships also contributes to marine pollution.
Annex IV of MARPOL
Annex IV contains a set of regulations regarding the discharge of sewage into the sea from ships, including regulations regarding the ships' equipment and systems for the control of sewage discharge, the provision of port reception facilities for sewage, and requirements for survey and certification.
It is generally considered that on the high seas, the oceans are capable of assimilating and dealing with raw sewage through natural bacterial action. Therefore, the regulations in Annex IV of MARPOL prohibit the discharge of sewage into the sea within a specified distance from the nearest land, unless otherwise provided.
Governments are required to ensure the provision of adequate reception facilities at ports and terminals for the reception of sewage, without causing delay to ships.
The Annex entered into force on 27 September 2003. A revised Annex IV was adopted on 1 April 2004 and entered into force on 1 August 2005.
The revised Annex applies to ships, engaged in international voyages, of 400 gross tonnage and above or which are certified to carry more than 15 persons. The Annex requires ships to be equipped with either an approved sewage treatment plant or an approved sewage comminuting and disinfecting system or a sewage holding tank.
The discharge of sewage into the sea is prohibited, except when the ship has in operation an approved sewage treatment plant or when the ship is discharging comminuted and disinfected sewage using an approved system at a distance of more than three nautical miles from the nearest land. Sewage which is not comminuted or disinfected may be discharged at a distance of more than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land when the ship is en route and proceeding at not less than 4 knots, and the rate of discharge of untreated sewage shall be approved by the Administration (see resolution MEPC.157(55))
The MEPC also adopted the Recommendation on standards for the rate of discharge of untreated sewage from ships (resolution MEPC.157(55)).
In July 2011, MEPC 62 adopted, by resolution MEPC.200(62), the most recent amendment to MARPOL Annex IV, which entered into force on 1 January 2013. The amendment introduced, inter alia, a definition for Special Area as well as relevant requirements for the discharge of sewage from passenger ships in Special Areas and for port reception facilities.
The discharge of sewage from passenger ships within a Special Area is generally be prohibited under the new regulations, except when the ship has in operation an approved sewage treatment plant which has been certified by the Administration (see resolution MEPC.227(64)). The sewage treatment plant installed on a passenger ship intending to discharge sewage effluent in Special Areas should additionally meet the nitrogen and phosphorus removal standard when tested for its Certificate of Type Approval by the Administration (resolution MEPC.227(64), section 4.2).
Currently, the Baltic Sea area is the only Special Area under Annex IV. In accordance with resolution MEPC.275(69), the discharge requirements for Special Areas in regulation 11.3 of MARPOL Annex IV for the Baltic Sea Special Area shall take effect:
.1 on 1 June 2019, for new passenger ships;
.2 on 1 June 2021, for existing passenger ships other than those specified in .3; and
.3 on 1 June 2023, for existing passenger ships en route directly to or from a port located outside the special area and to or from a port located east of longitude 28˚10' E within the special area that do not make any other port calls within the special area.
1 As defined in regulation 1.10 of MARPOL Annex IV