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Boyd, P. W. et al. (2008)Implications of large-scale iron fertilization of the oceans. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364, 213-218

Buesseler, K. O. et al. (2008)Ocean Iron Fertilization: Moving Forward in a Sea of Uncertainty. Science 319, 162.

Buesseler, K. O. et al. (2007)Revisiting carbon flux through the ocean's twilight zone. Science 316, 567-570.

Chisholm, S. W., Falkowski, P. G., Cullen, J. J. (2001)Dis-crediting ocean fertilization. Science 294, 309-310.

Cullen, J. J., Boyd, P. W (2008)Predicting and verifying the intended and unintended consequences of large-scale ocean fertilization. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364, 295-301.

Denman, K. L. (2008)Climate change, ocean processes, and iron fertilization. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364: 219-225.

Freestone, D., Rayfuse, R. (2008)Ocean iron fertilization and international law. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364: 227–233.

Fuhrman, J. A., Capone, D. G. (1991)Possible biogeochemical consequences of ocean fertilization. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1951-1959.

Huesemann, M. H. (2008). Ocean fertilization and other climate change mitigation strategies: an overview. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364, 243-250.

Johnson, K. S., Karl, D. M. (2002). Is ocean fertilization credible or creditable? Science 296, 467-468.

Jones, I. S. F., Young, H. E. (1997). Engineering a large sustainable world fishery. Environmental Conservation 24, 99-104.

Lampitt, R. S. et al. (2008). Ocean fertilization: a potential means of geoengineering? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 366, 3919-3945.

Leinen, M. (2008). Building relationships between scientists and business in ocean iron fertilization. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364, 251-256.

Martin, J. H., Gordon, R. M., Fitzwater, S. E. (1991). The case for iron. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1793-1802.

Morel, F. M. M., Hudson, R. J. M., Price, N. M. (1991). Limitation of productivity by trace metals in the sea. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1742-1755.

Orbach, M. K. (2008). Cultural context of ocean fertilization. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364: 235-242.

Peng, T-H., Broecker, W. S. (1991). Factors limiting the reduction of atmospheric CO2 by iron fertilization. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1919-1927.

Schneider, S. H. (2008). Geoengineering: could we or should we make it work? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 366, 3843-3862.

Strong, A. et al. (2009). Ocean fertilization: time to move on. Nature 461, 347-348, doi:10.1038/461347a.

Strong, A.L., Cullen, J.J., Chisholm, S.W. (2009). Ocean fertilization: Reviewing the science, policy, and commercial activity and charting a new course forward. Oceanography 22(3): 236-261.

Watson, A., Liss, P., Duce, R. (1991). Design of a small-scale in situ iron fertilization experiment. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1960-1965.

Watson, A. et al. (2008). Designing the next generation of ocean iron fertilization experiments. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364, 303–309.

Banse, K. 1991. Rates of phytoplankton cell division in the field and in iron enrichment experiments. Limnology and Oceanography 36(8):1,886–1,898.

Behrenfeld, M.J., A.J. Bale, Z.S. Kolber, J. Aiken, and P.G. Falkowski. 1996. Confirmation of iron limitation of phytoplankton photosynthesis in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature 383:508–513,

Boyd, P.W., A.J. Watson, C.S. Law, E.R. Abraham, T. Trull, R. Murdoch, D.C.E. Bakker, A.R. Bowie, K.O. Buesseler, H. Chang, and others. 2000. A mesoscale phytoplankton bloom in the polar Southern Ocean stimulated by iron fertilization. Nature 407:695–702,

Boyd, P.W. 2002. The role of iron in the biogeochemistry of the Southern Ocean and equatorial Pacific: A comparison of in situ iron enrichments. Deep-Sea Research Part II 49:1,803–1,821,

Boyd, P.W., G.A. Jackson, and A.M. Waite. 2002. Are mesoscale perturbation experiments in polar waters prone to physical artefacts? Evidence from algal aggregation modelling studies. Geophysical Research Letters 29(11), 1541,

Boyd, P.W., T. Jickells, C.S. Law, S. Blain, E.A. Boyle, K.O. Buesseler, K.H. Coale, J.J. Cullen, H.J.W. de Baar, M. Follows, and others. 2007. Mesoscale iron enrichment experiments 1993–2005: Synthesis and future directions. Science 315:612–617,

Boyd, P.W., C.S. Law, C.S. Wong, Y. Nojiri, A. Tsuda, M. Levasseur, S. Takeda, R. Rivkin, P.J. Harrison, R. Strzepek, and others. 2004. The decline and fate of an iron-induced subarctic phytoplankton bloom. Nature 428(6982):549–553,

Boyd, P.W., E. Ibisanmi, S.G. Sander, K.A. Hunter, and G.A. Jackson. 2010. Remineralization of upper ocean particles: Implications for iron biogeochemistry. Limnology and Oceanography 55(3):1,271–1,288,

Boyd, P.W. 2008. Ranking geo-engineering schemes. Nature Geoscience 1:722–724,

Chai, F., M.S. Jiang, Y. Chao, R.C. Dugdale, F. Chavez, and R.T. Barber. 2007. Modeling responses of diatom productivity and biogenic silica export to iron enrichment in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 21, GB3S90,

Chisholm, S.W., and F.M.M. Morel, eds. 1991. What controls phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea? Limnology and Oceanography 36(8):1,507–1,970.

Coale, K.H., K.S. Johnson, S.E. Fitzwater, R.M. Gordon, S. Tanner, F.P. Chavez, L. Ferioli, C. Sakamoto, P. Rogers, F. Millero, and others. 1996. A massive phytoplankton bloom induced by an ecosystem-scale iron fertilization experiment in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature 383:495–511,

Coale, K.H., K.S. Johnson, F.P. Chavez, K.O. Buesseler, R.T. Barber, M.A. Brzezinski, W.P. Cochlan, F.J. Millero, P.G. Falkowski, J.E. Bauer, and others. 2004. Southern Ocean iron enrichment experiment: Carbon cycling in high- and low-Si waters. Science 304:408–414,

De Baar, H.J.W. 1994. Von Liebig’s Law of the Minimum and plankton ecology (1899–1991). Progress in Oceanography 33:347–386,

Denman, K.L., C. Völker, M.A. Peña, and R.B. Rivkin. 2006. Modelling the ecosystem response to iron fertilization in the subarctic NE Pacific: The influence of grazing, and Si and N cycling on CO2 drawdown. Deep-Sea Research Part II 53:2,327–2,352,

Dixon, J.L. 2008. Macro and micro nutrient limitation of microbial productivity in oligotrophic subtropical Atlantic waters. Environmental Chemistry 5:135–142,

Frost, B.W. 1996. Phytoplankton bloom on iron rations. Nature 383:474–476,

Gervais, F., U. Riebesell, and M.Y. Gorbunov. 2002. Changes in primary productivity and chlorophyll a in response to iron fertilization in the southern Polar Frontal Zone. Limnology and Oceanography 47:1,324–1,335.

Gnanadesikan, A., J.L. Sarmiento, and R.D. Slater. 2003. Effects of patchy ocean fertilization on atmospheric carbon dioxide and biological production. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17(2), 1050,

Guidi, L., P.H.R. Calil, S. Duhamel, K.M. Björkman, S.C. Doney, G.A. Jackson, B. Li, M.J. Church, S. Tozzi, Z.S. Kolber, and others. 2009. Does eddy-eddy interaction control surface phytoplankton distribution and carbon export in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre? Journal of Geophysical Research 117, G02024,

Hart, T.J. 1934. On the phytoplankton of the Southwest Atlantic and the Bellingshausen Sea 1929–1931. Discovery Reports 8:1–268.

Harvey, M.J., C.S. Law, M.J. Smith, J.A. Hall, E.R. Abraham, C.L. Stevens, M.G. Hadfield, D.T. Ho, B. Ward, S.D.Archer, and others. 2010. The SOLAS air–sea gas exchange experiment (SAGE) 2004. Deep-Sea Research Part II 58:753–763,

Hutchins, D.A., and K.W. Bruland. 1998. Iron-limited diatom growth and Si:N uptake ratios in a coastal upwelling regime. Nature 393:561–564,

Le Clainche, Y., M. Levasseur, A. Vezina, R.-C. Bouillon, A. Merzouk, S. Michaud, M. Scarratt, C.S. Wong, R.B. Rivkin, P.W. Boyd, and others. 2006. Modeling analysis of the effect of iron enrichment on dimethyl sulfide dynamics in the NE Pacific (SERIES experiment). Journal of Geophysical Research 111, C01011,

Ledwell, J.R., A.J. Watson, and C.S. Law. 1993. Evidence for slow mixing across the pycnocline from an open-ocean tracer-release experiment. Nature 364:701–703,

Legendre, L., and R.B. Rivkin. 2005. Integrating functional diversity, food web processes, and biogeochemical carbon fluxes into a conceptual approach for modelling the upper ocean in a high-CO2 world. Journal of Geophysical Research 111, C09S17,

Lévy, M., R. Ferrari, P.J.S. Franks, A.P. Martin, and P. Rivière. 2012. Bringing physics to life at the submesoscale. Geophysical Research Letters 39, L14602,

Lovelock, J.E., and C.G. Rapley. 2007. Ocean pipes could help the Earth to cure itself. Nature 449:403,

Markels, M. Jr., and R.T. Barber. 2001. Sequestration of carbon dioxide by ocean fertilization. Paper presented at the 1st National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, National Energy and Technology Laboratory, Washington, DC, May 14–17, 2001.

Martin, J.H., and S.E. Fitzwater. 1988. Iron deficiency limits phytoplankton growth in the northeast Pacific subarctic. Nature 331:341–343,

Martin, J.M. 1990. Glacial-interglacial CO2 change: The iron hypothesis. Paleoceanography 5:1–13,

Martin, J.M., K.H. Coale, K.S. Johnson, S.E. Fitzwater, R.M. Gordon, S.J. Tanner, C.N. Hunter, V.A. Elrod, J.L. Nowicki, T.L. Coley, and others. 1994. Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature 371:123–129,

Nature Geoscience editorial. 2009. The Law of the Sea. Nature Geoscience 2:153,

Resplandy, L., A.P. Martin, F. LeMoigne, P. Martin, A. Aquilina, L. Mémery, M. Lévy, and R. Sanders. 2012. How does dynamical spatial variability impact 234Th-derived estimates of organic export? Deep-Sea Research Part I 68:24–45,

Russell, L.M., P.J. Rasch, G.M. Mace, R.B. Jackson, J. Shepherd, P. Liss, M. Leinen, D. Schimel, N.E. Vaughan, A.C. Janetos, and others. 2012. Ecosystem impacts of geoengineering: A review for developing a science plan. Ambio 41(4):350–369,

Sarmiento, J.L., R.D. Slater, J. Dunne, A. Gnanadesikan, and M.R. Hiscock. 2010. Efficiency of small scale carbon mitigation by patch iron fertilization. Biogeosciences 7:3,593–3,624,

Schiermeier, Q. 2009. Ocean fertilization experiment suspended. Nature

Shepherd, J., K. Caldeira, P. Cox, J. Haigh, D. Keith, B. Launder, G. Mace, G. MacKerron, J. Pyle, S. Rayner, and others. 2009. Geoengineering the climate: Science, governance and uncertainty. Royal Society Policy Document 10/09, 81 pp.

Sigman, D.M., and E.A. Boyle. 2000. Glacial/interglacial variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Nature 407:859–869,

Silver, M.W., S. Bargu, S.L. Coale, C.R. Benitez-Nelson, A.C. Garcia, K.J. Roberts, E. Sekula-Wood, K.W. Bruland, and K.H. Coale. 2010. Toxic diatoms and domoic acid in natural and iron enriched waters of the oceanic Pacific. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107(48):20,762–20,767,

Smetacek, V., C. Klaas, V. Strass, P. Assmy, M. Montresor, B. Cisewski, N. Savoye, A. Webb, F. d’Ovidio, J.M. Arrieta, and others. 2012. Deep carbon export from a Southern Ocean iron-fertilized diatom bloom. Nature 478(7407):313–319,

Strong, A.L., S.W. Chisholm, C. Miller, and J. Cullen. 2009a. Ocean fertilization: Time to move on. Nature 361:347–348,

Strong, A.L., J.J. Cullen, and S.W. Chisholm. 2009. Ocean fertilization: Science, policy, and commerce. Oceanography 22(3):236–261,

Tsuda, A., S. Takeda, H. Saito, J. Nishioka, I. Kudo, Y. Nojiri, K. Suzuki, M. Uematsu, M.L. Wells, D. Tsumune, and others. 2007. Evidence for the grazing hypothesis: Grazing reduces phytoplankton responses of the HNLC ecosystem to iron enrichment in the western subarctic Pacific (SEEDS II). Journal of Oceanography 63:983–994,

Tsuda, A., S. Takeda, H. Saito, J. Nishioka, Y. Nojiri, I. Kudo, H. Kiyosawa, A. Shiomoto, K. Imai, T. Ono, and others. 2003. A mesoscale iron enrichment in the western Subarctic Pacific induces a large centric diatom bloom. Science 300:958–961,

Turner, S.M., M.J. Harvey, C.S. Law, P.D. Nightingale, and P.S. Liss. 2004. Iron-induced changes in oceanic sulfur biogeochemistry. Geophysical Research Letters 31, L14307,

Watson, A.J., P.S. Liss, and R.A. Duce, 1991. Design of a small-scale in situ iron fertilization experiment. Limnology and Oceanography 36:1,960–1,965.

Watson, A.J., D.C.E. Bakker, P.W. Boyd, A.J. Ridgwell, and C.S. Law. 2000. Effect of iron supply on Southern Ocean CO2 uptake and implications for glacial atmospheric CO2. Nature 407:730–733,

Watson, A.J., P.W. Boyd, S. Turner, T. Jickells, and P. Liss. 2008. Designing the next generation of ocean iron fertilization experiments. Marine Ecology Progress Series 364:303–309,

White, A., K. Björkman, E. Grabowski, R. Letelier, S. Poulos, B. Watkins, and D. Karl. 2010. An open ocean trial of controlled upwelling using wave pump technology. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 27:385–396,

Williamson, P., D.W.R. Wallace, C.S. Law, P.W. Boyd, Y. Collos, P. Croot, K. Denman, U. Riebesell, S. Takeda, and C. Vivian. In press. Ocean fertilization for geoengineering: A review of effectiveness, environmental impacts and emerging governance. Process Safety and Environmental Protection​