Resolutions adopted by IMO 21st Assembly - summaries

A Description of Resolutions adopted by the IMO Assembly at its 21st Session

The Assembly adopted the following resolutions, including those submitted by the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), IMO's senior technical body, the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) and other IMO subsidiary bodies.

A.874(21) Relations with Non-Governmental Organizations
Endorses the enjoyment of consultative status of 52 non-governmental organizations.
A.875(21) Arrears of contributions
The resolution urges Member States to make payment of any arrears at the earliest possible date. It notes that the level of contributions in 1995-1997 has not been maintained. (In 1995 and 1996, the level of contribution receipts reached 95 percent and 96 percent respectively, while for 1999 to the date of the Assembly the level of payment for contributions reached 87.6 percent.)
A.876(21) Presentation of accounts and audit reports
The resolution approves the accounts and audit reports for the nineteenth financial period 1996-1997 and for the first year of the twentieth financial period 1998-1999 and for IMO's participation in UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) in 1997 and 1998.
A.877(21) Work programme and budget for the twenty-first financial period 2000-2001
The resolution approves budgetary appropriations totalling £36,612,200, representing Zero Nominal Growth over the previous biennium. The total comprises an appropriation of £18,155,000 for 2000 and £18,666,100 for 2001.

The resolution also approves the work programme for the 2000-2001 biennium, comprising ten major programmes divided into programmes and sub-programmes.

A.878(21) Appointment of the external auditor
Approves the appointment of India as external auditor for the Organization.
A.879(21) Long-term work plan of the Organization (up to 2006)
The resolution sets out the work plan for the Maritime Safety Committee, the Legal Committee, the Marine Environment Protection Committee, the Technical Co-operation Committee and the Facilitation Committee for the period up to 2006.

It includes a non-exhaustive list of subjects for consideration by the Organization.

A.880(21) Implementation of the International Safety Management (ISM) code by 1 July 2002
The resolution urges Member Governments, Contracting Governments to SOLAS and the shipping industry to take urgent appropriate action to ensure that ships and shipping companies liable to ISM certification on 1 July 2002 comply with the Code’s requirements by that date.

The ISM Code entered into force on 1 July 1998 for passenger ships, including passenger high-speed craft; and oil tankers, chemical tankers, gas carriers, bulk carriers and cargo high-speed craft of 500 gross tonnage and above. It applies to other cargo ships and mobile offshore drilling units of 500 gross tonnage and above not later than 1 July 2002.

The resolution also notes that SOLAS does not provide for any extension of implementation dates for the introduction of the ISM Code.

The ISM Code establishes safety management objectives which are:

  • to provide for safe practices in ship operation and a safe working environment;
  • to establish safeguards against all identified risks;
  • to continuously improve safety management skills of personnel, including preparing for emergencies.

The Code requires a safety management system (SMS) to be established by "the Company", which is defined as the shipowner or any person, such as the manager or bareboat charterer, who has assumed responsibility for operating the ship. This system should be designed to ensure compliance with all mandatory regulations and that codes, guidelines and standards recommended by IMO and others are taken into account.

The SMS in turn should include a number of functional requirements:

  • a safety and environmental protection policy;
  • instructions and procedures to ensure safety and environmental protection;
  • defined levels of authority and lines of communication between and amongst shore and shipboard personnel;
  • procedures for reporting accidents, etc.;
  • procedures for responding to emergencies;
  • procedures for internal audits and management review.

The Company is then required to establish and implement a policy for achieving these objectives. This includes providing the necessary resources and shore-based support. Every company is expected "to designate a person or persons ashore having direct access to the highest level of management".

The Code then goes on to outline the responsibility and authority of the master of the ship. It states that the SMS should make it clear that "the master has the overriding authority and the responsibility to make decisions ..." The Code then deals with other seagoing personnel and emphasizes the importance of training.

Companies are required to prepare plans and instructions for key shipboard operations and to make preparations for dealing with any emergencies which might arise. The importance of maintenance is stressed and companies are required to ensure that regular inspections are held and corrective measures taken where necessary.

The procedures required by the Code should be documented and compiled in a Safety Management Manual, a copy of which should be kept on board. Regular checks and audits should be held by the company to ensure that the SMS is being complied with and the system itself should be reviewed periodically to evaluate its efficiency.

A.881(21) Self-assessment of Flag State performance
The resolution includes a flag State Performance Self-Assessment Form, which is intended to establish a uniform set of internal and external criteria which can be used by flag States on a voluntary basis to obtain a clear picture of how well their maritime administrations are functioning and to make their own assessment of their performance as flag States.

The resolution states that flag States have the primary responsibility to have in place an adequate and effective system to exercise control over ships entitled to fly their flag and to ensure they comply with relevant international rules and regulations. It urges Member Governments to carry out a self-assessment of their capabilities and performance in giving full and complete effect to the various instruments to which they are Party.

The resolution also encourages Member Governments to use the self-assessment form when seeking technical assistance from or through IMO – however, it notes that submission of a completed form is voluntary and is not a prerequisite for receiving technical assistance.

The resolution invites Member Governments to submit a copy of their self-assessment report in order to enable the establishment of a database which would assist IMO in its efforts to achieve consistent and effective implementation of IMO instruments.

A.882(21) Amendments to the procedures for port State control (resolution A.787(19))
The resolution is aimed at updating resolution A.787(19), which contains comprehensive guidelines and recommendations on port State control procedures.

New sections incorporate procedures for port State control relating to the International Safety Management (ISM) Code.

The resolution notes that port State control related to the ISM Code should be an inspection and not an audit and that port State control officers should have the requisite training in, and appropriate knowledge of, the provisions of the ISM Code.

A.883(21) Global and uniform implementation of the Harmonized System of Survey and Certification (HSSC)
The resolution is aimed at encouraging all States to implement the harmonized system of survey and certification (HSSC), even if they are not parties to the relevant Protocols, which enter into force on 3 February 2000.

The HSSC covers survey and certification requirements of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974, the International Convention on Load Lines, (LL) 1966 and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78), as well as the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code), Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (BCH Code) and International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (IGC Code).

All these instruments require the issuing of certificates to show that requirements have been met and this has to be done by means of a survey which can involve the ship being out of service for several days. The harmonized system is intended to alleviate the problems caused by survey dates and intervals between surveys which do not coincide, so that a ship should not have to go into port or repair yard for a survey required by one convention shortly after doing the same thing in connection with another instrument.

The harmonized system of survey and certification was introduced by the 1988 Protocols to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS) and the International Convention on Load Lines, 1966 (1966 Load Line Convention). MARPOL 73/78 was amended on 16 March 1990 to introduce the harmonized system of survey and certification, with the proviso that the amendments enter into force at the same time as the entry into force date of the 1988 SOLAS Protocol and the 1988 Load Lines Protocol.

A.884(21) Amendments to the code for the investigation of marine casualties and incidents (resolution A.849(20))
The resolution adds Guidelines on investigation of human factors to resolution A.849 (20) - which requests flag States to conduct an investigation into all very serious and serious marine casualties and to supply the Organization with all relevant findings.

Flag States should use as a basis the Code for the Investigation of Marine Casualties and Incidents, which is aimed at providing a standard approach to the investigations, in order to correctly identify the causes and underlying causes of casualties and incidents.

The Guidelines on investigation of human factors were developed by a Joint IMO/International Labour Organization (ILO) Working Group on Investigation of Human Factors in Maritime Casualties.

The guidelines are comprehensive and include sections on:

  • Investigation procedures and techniques – including fact-finding, conducting interviews, selection of interviewees and topics to be covered by the investigator.
  • Reporting procedures
  • Qualifications and training of investigators

Appendices covering: the ILO/IMO process for investigating human factors; areas of human factors inquiry including sample questions designed to aid the investigator while investigating for human factors; definitions - common human element terms; selected bibliography of UNCLOS/ILO/IMO requirements and recommendations related to the investigation of human factors in marine casualties and incidents.

A.885(21) Procedures for the identification of particularly sensitive sea areas and the adoption of associated protective measures and amendments to the guidelines contained in resolution A.720(17)
The resolution includes new procedures for designation of a "particularly sensitive sea area" (PSSA), which supersede the procedures set out in the Guidelines in resolution A.720(17) (adopted in 1991).

There are currently two designated PSSAs: the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and the Sabana-CamagŁey Archipelago in Cuba. The Sabana-CamagŁey Archipelago was designated a PSSA in September 1997. In these two areas, international shipping has to comply with specific measures, including routeing measures, to protect the environment and amenities in the designated areas.

Under the Guidelines, an application to IMO for identification of a PSSA and the adoption of Associated Protective Measures, or an amendment thereto, may be submitted by a Member Government or by two or more Members where there is a common interest.

The application should include a summary of the objectives of the proposed PSSA identification, the location of the area, the need for protection and a preliminary proposal for Associated Protective Measures, including the reasons why these proposed measures are the preferred method for providing protection for the area to be identified as a PSSA.

The application should then set out, firstly, a description of the area, the significance of the environmental characteristics of the area at risk of damage from particular international maritime activities, and an assessment of its vulnerability to damage by these activities. Secondly, the application should show how the proposed Associated Protective Measures - such as routeing measures, strict application of MARPOL discharge and equipment requirements for ships, such as oil tankers; and installation of Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) - will protect the area from the identified risks.

A.886(21) Procedure for the adoption of, and amendments to, performance standards and technical specifications
The resolution states that the Maritime Safety Committee and the Marine Environment Protection Committee should be responsible for adopting performance standards and technical specifications, as well as amendments to them.

The resolution is intended to establish a uniform procedure for the adoption of, and amendments to, any performance standards and technical specifications developed by the Maritime Safety Committee and Marine Environment Protection Committee to ensure that such standards and specifications are kept abreast of technological and industry developments,

The resolution replaces an earlier resolution A.825(19) Procedure for adoption and amendment of performance standards for radio and navigational equipment which gave the MSC the responsibility for adoption of and amendments to performance standards and technical specifications for that type of equipment.

A.887(21) Establishment, updating and retrieval of the information contained in the registration databases for the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS)
The resolution includes recommended procedures to follow to ensure that information on ships using GMDSS equipment is up-to-date and easily and continuously available, for example to Maritime Rescue and Co-ordination Centres (MRCCs).

Every State requiring or allowing the use of GMDSS systems should make suitable arrangements for ensuring registrations of identities are made, maintained and enforced.

The resolution revokes resolution A.764(18) on Establishment, updating and retrieval of the information contained in the registration databases of satellite EPIRBs.

A.888(21) Criteria for the provision of mobile satellite communication systems in the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS)
The resolution recommends Governments provide the mobile-satellite communication system elements necessary for the proper operation of the GMDSS.

The annex to the resolution outlines criteria for the provision of satellite communications systems and coast earth stations in the GMDSS, including giving priority to distress alerts and urgent and safety calls. Governments providing mobile-satellite communication systems and coast earth stations should inform IMO, so that the information can be analysed with a view to possible acceptance of those systems for the GMDSS.

The resolution notes that the Inmarsat system is at present the only mobile-satellite communication system recognized by SOLAS Contracting Governments for use in the GMDSS, but that the Organization needs to have in place criteria against which to evaluate the capabilities and performance of other mobile-satellite communication systems which may in the future be proposed for the GMDSS.

A.889 (21) Pilot transfer arrangements
The resolution includes Recommendation on Pilot Transfer Arrangements, which notes that ship designers, equipment designers and manufacturers are encouraged to consider all aspects of pilot transfer arrangements at an early stage in design. The aim is to ensure the safety of pilots, especially in embarking/disembarking a ship.

The recommendation includes detailed recommendations for specifications of the various elements involved in pilot transfer, including: pilot ladders; ropes; accommodation ladders used in conjunction with pilot ladders; mechanical pilot hoists; ladder or platform section; operation of the hoist; access to deck.

The resolution revokes three earlier resolutions relating to pilot transfer arrangements: A.257(VIII), A.426(XI) and A.667(16).

A.890(21) Principles of safe manning
The resolution replaces resolution A.481(XII) adopted in 1981 and is intended to take into account developments in the shipping industry since then.

It includes basic principles to be applied when considering manning levels in order to ensure the safe operation of the ship.

Each ship should be issued with a "minimum safe manning document", specifying the minimum safe manning levels for that particular ship. The document can then be produced for inspection during port State control.

The resolution includes detailed guidelines for the application of principles of safe manning and guidance on contents of the minimum safe manning document as well as a model format.

A.891(21) Recommendations on training of personnel on mobile offshore units (MOUs)
The resolution includes a recommendation on Training of Personnel on Mobile Offshore Units (MOUs). The resolution covers minimum standards for familiarization and basic safety training instructions and competencies for all MOU personnel; recommendations on specialized training and qualifications of key personnel (offshore installation manager, barge supervisor, ballast control operator, maintenance supervisor); and guidance on safety and emergency response drills and exercises.
A.892(21) Unlawful practices associated with certificates of competency and endorsements
The resolution highlights the problem of fraudulent certificates of competency issued in relation to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) 1978, as amended, and encourages action by Member States to eliminate the circulation of fraudulent certificates.

The resolution follows concern about a proliferation of fraudulent certificates of competency, or authentic certificates reportedly issued on the basis of forged foreign certificates, which have been found during port State control inspections and applications for recognition of certificates.

The resolution urges Member Governments to take all possible steps to investigate cases and prosecute, or assist in the investigation and prosecution of, those found to be involved in the processing or obtaining of fraudulent certificates or endorsements, including the holders of such certificates or endorsements.

The resolution also urges Governments who endorse certificates issued by another Party to first confirm the authenticity of the original certificate from the issuing authority and to include details of the underlying certificate on the new document.

An MSC circular on Fraudulent certificates of competency (MSC/Circ.900), issued 2 February 1999, also invites Member States and Parties to STCW to report to IMO and to the relevant Administration any cases or suspected cases of fraudulent certificates, to intensify efforts to eliminate the problem, and to act under the terms of the Convention, including prosecution of those involved, if seafarers on board are found to be holding fraudulent certificates - this could also mean detaining the ship.

A.893(21) Guidelines for voyage planning
The resolution includes guidelines on voyage planning and notes the view of the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) that voyage planning is important for all ships engaged on international voyages.

The Guidelines note that the development of a plan for voyage or passage as well as the close and continuous monitoring of the vessel's progress and position during the execution of such a plan is of essential importance for the safety of life at sea, the safety and efficiency of navigation and the protection of the marine environment.

There are several factors that may impede the safe navigation of all vessels and additional factors that may impede the navigation of large vessels or vessels carrying hazardous cargoes - and these should be taken into account.

Voyage and passage planning includes: appraisal, i.e. gathering all information relevant to the contemplated voyage or passage; detailed planning of the whole voyage or passage from berth to berth, including those areas necessitating the presence of a pilot; execution of the plan; and the monitoring of the progress of the vessel in the implementation of the plan.

These components of voyage/passage planning are outlined in detail in the Guidelines.

The Guidelines update Guidance on voyage planning issued as a Safety of Navigation Circular (SN/Circ.92) in 1978.

A.894(21) International aeronautical and maritime search and rescue (IAMSAR) manual
The resolution sets out the procedure for updating the Manual, which was jointly developed by IMO and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

The resolution gives the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) the responsibility for adopting amendments to the IAMSAR Manual after receiving and evaluating, through its subsidiary bodies, proposals for amendments and/or additions.

The IAMSAR Manual, published by IMO/ICAO in 1998, is designed to help States meet their obligations under the Convention on Civil Aviation, SOLAS and the SAR Convention.

The IAMSAR Manual replaced two manuals earlier developed by IMO: the Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual (MERSAR) adopted by the IMO Assembly in l97l; and the IMO Search and Rescue Manual (IMOSAR), adopted in 1978 by the MSC.

A.895(21) Anti-fouling systems used on ships
The resolution states that the Marine Environment Protection Committee should develop a global legally-binding instrument to address the harmful effects of anti-fouling systems used on ships.

It states that the global instrument should ensure a global prohibition on the application of organotin compounds which act as biocides in anti-fouling systems on ships by 1 January 2003, and a complete prohibition on the presence of organotin compounds which act as biocides in anti-fouling systems on ships by 1 January 2008.

Antifouling paints are used to coat the bottoms of ships to prevent sealife such as algae and molluscs attaching themselves to the hull - thereby slowing down the ship and increasing fuel consumption. In the early days of sailing ships, lime and later arsenic was used to coat ships' hulls, until the modern chemicals industry developed effective antifouling paints using metallic compounds.

The compounds slowly "leach" into the sea water, killing barnacles and other marine life that have attached to the ship - but studies have shown that these compounds persist in the water, killing sealife, harming the environment and possibly entering the food chain. One of the most effective antifouling paints, developed in the 1960s, contains the organotin tributyltin (TBT), which has been proven to cause deformations in oysters and sex changes in whelks.

The harmful environmental effects of organotin compounds were recognized by IMO in 1990, when the Marine Environment Protection committee (MEPC) adopted a resolution which recommended that Governments adopt measures to eliminate the use of antifouling paint containing TBT on non-aluminium hulled vessels of less than 25 metres in length and eliminate the use of antifouling paints with a leaching rate of more than 4 microgrammes of TBT per day.

Alternatives to TBT paint include copper-based coatings and silicon-based paints, which make the surface of the ship slippery so that sealife will be easily washed off as the ship moves through water. Further development of alternative anti-fouling systems is being carried out. Underwater cleaning systems avoid the ship having to be put into dry dock for ridding the hull of sealife, while ultrasonic or electrolytic devices may also work to rid the ship of foulants.

The Assembly also approved the holding of a Conference in 2001 to adopt the proposed legal instrument to regulate the use of shipboard anti-fouling systems and to phase out those containing organotins such as TBT.

A.896(21) Provision and use of port waste reception facilities
The resolution requests the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) to develop guidelines on the provision and use of port waste reception facilities.

The resolution notes that while the IMO Comprehensive Manual on Port Reception Facilities provides guidance and technical advice, there is a need for guidelines on how best to plan the provision and utilization of port waste reception facilities that meet the needs of their users.

An MEPC correspondence group on reception facilities has already been working on the first draft of such guidelines, which contain information for the provision and improvement of port waste reception facilities and provide information relating to the ongoing management of existing facilities, as well as for the planning and establishment of new facilities.

The lack of reception facilities for dirty ballast water, waste oil and garbage is still a major problem in some areas for the shipping industry and represents the main reason for pollution of the marine environment. Parties to MARPOL have a duty to ensure the provision of adequate reception facilities in ports, terminals, ship repair yards and marinas.

The provision of reception facilities is particularly important when countries wish their coastal areas to be designated as special areas.

Information, provided by Member States, on provision of reception facilities is available in the Circulars section.

A.897(21) Amendments to the revised specifications for the design, operation and control of crude oil washing systems (resolution A.446(XI) as amended by resolution A.497(XII))
The resolution includes amendments to resolution A.446(XI), as amended by resolution A.497(XII), relating to specifications for the design, operation and control of crude oil washing systems.

Crude oil washing, which was introduced into MARPOL 73/78 as part of the 1978 Protocol, involves cleaning of oil tanks using crude oil, rather than water - in other words, the cargo itself. When sprayed onto the sediments clinging to the tank walls, the oil simply dissolves them, turning them back into usable oil that can be pumped off with the rest of the cargo. There is no need for slop tanks to be used since the process leaves virtually no oily wastes.

The amendments are aimed at simplifying the system for monitoring and controlling COW in order to avoid any health risks associated with internal examinations of tanks by surveyors.

A.898(21) Guidelines on shipowners’ responsibilities in respect of maritime claims
The resolution includes guidelines intended to encourage all shipowners to take steps to ensure that claimants receive adequate compensation following incidents involving their ships - in other words, to establish the minimum insurance cover that ships should carry.
A.899(21) Acceptance of CLC insurance certificates
The resolution clarifies the validity of certificates relating to the 1969 International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (CLC) and those relating to the 1992 CLC Protocol.

States parties to the 1992 CLC ceased to be party to the 1969 CLC from 16 May 1998.

The resolution invites States Parties to CLC 69 not to require 1992 CLC ships holding 1992 CLC certificates to obtain 1969 CLC certificates and to accept certificates issued under the provisions of the 1992 CLC Protocol as meeting the requirements of CLC 69; urges States Parties to the CLC 69 to become parties to the 1992 CLC Protocol as soon as possible; invites CLC 69 States Parties to issue to 1992 CLC ships 1969 CLC certificates only if they are requested to do so by the States whose flag these ships are entitled to fly; and requests the IMO Secretary-General to intensify his efforts to ensure the wider acceptance of the 1992 CLC Protocol.

A.900(21) Objectives of the Organization in the 2000s
The resolution identifies IMO’s main objectives for the 2000s as follows:
  • taking measures to implement the proactive policy agreed in the 1990s more actively than in the past, so that trends which might adversely affect the safety of ships and those on board and/or the environment may be identified at the earliest feasible stage and action taken to avoid or mitigate such effects. In implementing this directive, Formal Safety Assessment should be used to the extent possible in any rule-making process;
  • shifting emphasis onto people;
  • ensuring the effective uniform implementation of existing IMO standards and regulations;
  • ensuring the wide early acceptance of those Annexes to the MARPOL Convention which have not yet entered into force;
  • developing a safety culture and environmental conscience;
  • avoiding excessive regulation;
  • strengthening the Organization's technical co-operation programmes; and
  • promoting the intensification by Governments and industry of efforts to prevent and suppress unlawful acts which threaten the security of ships, the safety of those on board and the environment (in particular, terrorism at sea, piracy and armed robbery against ships, illicit drug trafficking, illegal migration by sea and stowaway cases).
  • to continue observing resolution A.500(XII) Objectives of the Organization in the 1980s and resolution A.777(18) Work methods and organization of work.

The resolution highlights the efforts of the Secretary-General to promote:

  • the objectives of the Organization (in particular, his decisive action and leadership provided towards enhancing the safety of ro-ro passenger ships and bulk carriers and the expeditious revision of the STCW Convention); and
  • the world-wide implementation of the standards and regulations adopted by the Organization (in particular, his efforts to ensure the wide and effective implementation of the revised STCW Convention, ISM Code, MARPOL 73/78 and the FAL Convention),

The resolution also notes the special contribution of the World Maritime University, the IMO International Maritime Law Institute and the IMO International Maritime Academy in achieving the IMO objectives.

A.901(21) IMO and technical co-operation in the 2000s
The resolution states that capacity-building for safer shipping and cleaner oceans is the main objective of IMO’s technical co-operation programme during the 2000s.

It states that the development and implementation of IMO's Integrated Technical Co-operation programme (ITCP) should continue to be based on a number of key principles, including the following:

  • ownership of the development and implementation process rests with the recipient countries themselves;
  • integration of IMO’s regulatory priorities in the programme-building process;
  • development of human and institutional resources, on a sustainable basis, including the advancement of women;
  • promotion of regional collaboration and technical co-operation among developing countries;
  • promotion of partnerships with Governments, the industry and international development aid agencies;
  • mobilization of regional expertise and resources for technical assistance activities;
  • co-ordination with other development aid programmes in the maritime sector;
  • feedback from recipients on the effectiveness of the assistance being provided; and
  • monitoring systems and impact assessment so that programme targets are met and lessons learned are transferred back to the programme-building process.

The resolution urges Parties to IMO instruments that contain provisions on technical co-operation to respond to their commitments and invites Member States to use IMO as a co-ordination mechanism in relation to technical co-operation in the maritime sector.

It also invites Member States, the industry and partner organizations to continue, and if possible increase, their support for the ITCP, and affirms that the ITCP can and does contribute to sustainable development.

Contribution of IMO’s technical co-operation work
in promoting sustainable development

Action

Impact

Improving the safety and efficiency of maritime transport

  • well-run merchant and fishing fleets
  • improved turn-around of vessels and port throughput
  • increased global trade
  • improved balance of payments

 

Enhancing marine environment protection

  • cleaner waters and coasts
  • increased tourism
  • greater access to protein through improved fisheries catches
  • integrated coastal management

Promoting sustainable livelihoods and poverty eradication

  • employment for seafarers in the global shipping and fisheries industries
  • advancement of women in the maritime sector
  • increased foreign-exchange earnings
  • consequent beneficial impact at local level, especially in coastal/fishing communities