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Technical and Operational Measures

The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) was made mandatory for new ships and the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) for all ships at
MEPC 62 (July 2011) with the adoption of amendments to MARPOL Annex VI (resolution MEPC.203(62)), by Parties to MARPOL Annex VI. 

This was the first legally binding climate change treaty to be adopted since the Kyoto Protocol.  Since this breakthrough MEPC 63 (March 2012) adopted four important guidelines (resolutions MEPC.212(63), MEPC.213(63),
MEPC.214(63) and MEPC.215(63)) aimed at assisting the implementation of the mandatory regulations on Energy Efficiency for Ships in MARPOL Annex VI.


Energy Efficiency Design Index

The EEDI for new ships is the most important technical measure and it aims at promoting the use of more energy efficient (less polluting) equipment and engines.  The EEDI requires a minimum energy efficiency level per capacity mile (e.g. tonne mile) for different ship type and size segments.  From
1 January 2013, following an initial two year phase zero when new ship design will need to meet the reference level for their ship type, the level is to be tightened incrementally every five years, and so the EEDI is expected to stimulate continued innovation and technical development of all the components influencing the fuel efficiency of a ship from its design phase.  The EEDI is a non-prescriptive, performance-based mechanism that leaves the choice of technologies to use in a specific ship design to the industry.  As long as the required energy efficiency level is attained, ship designers and builders are free to use the most cost-efficient solutions for the ship to comply with the regulations.  The EEDI provides a specific figure for an individual ship design, expressed in grams of carbon dioxide (CO2) per ship’s capacity-mile (the smaller the EEDI the more energy efficient ship design) and is calculated by a formula based on the technical design parameters for a given ship.
The CO2 reduction level (grams of CO2 per tonne mile) for the first phase is set to 10% and will be tightened every five years to keep pace with technological developments of new efficiency and reduction measures.  Reduction rates have been established until the period 2025 to 2030 when a 30% reduction is mandated for applicable ship types calculated from a reference line representing the average efficiency for ships built between 2000 and 2010.  The EEDI is developed for the largest and most energy intensive segments of the world merchant fleet and will embrace 72% of emissions from new ships covering the following ship types: oil tankers, bulk carriers, gas carriers, general cargo, container ships, refrigerated cargo and combination carriers.  For ship types not covered by the current formula, suitable formulas are expected to be developed in the future addressing the largest emitters first.

Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan and Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator

The Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) is an operational measure that establishes a mechanism to improve the energy efficiency of a ship in a cost-effective manner.  The SEEMP also provides an approach for shipping companies to manage ship and fleet efficiency performance over time using, for example, the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI) as a monitoring tool.  The guidance on the development of the SEEMP for new and existing ships incorporates best practices for fuel efficient ship operation, as well as guidelines for voluntary use of the EEOI for new and existing ships (MEPC.1/Circ.684).  The EEOI enables operators to measure the fuel efficiency of a ship in operation and to gauge the effect of any changes in operation, e.g. improved voyage planning or more frequent propeller cleaning, or introduction of technical measures such as waste heat recovery systems or a new propeller.  The SEEMP urges the ship owner and operator at each stage of the plan to consider new technologies and practices when seeking to optimise the performance of a ship.


2012 Guidelines on Technical and Operational Measures

Further to the adoption of a global energy standard at MEPC 62 (July 2011), MEPC 63 (March 2012) adopted four sets of important guidelines to assist in the implementation of the mandatory regulations on Energy Efficiency for Ships in MARPOL Annex VI:
  1. 2012 Guidelines on the method of calculation of the attained Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for new ships, resolution MEPC.212(63);
  2. 2012 Guidelines for the development of a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP), resolution MEPC.213(63);
  3. 2012 Guidelines on survey and certification of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI), resolution MEPC.214(63); and
  4. Guidelines for calculation of reference lines for use with the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI), resolution MEPC.215(63).
Finalization and adoption of the supporting guidelines was a significant achievement which provides sufficient lead time for Administrations and industry to prepare.  The guidelines will support Member States in their uniform implementation of the new chapter 4 of MARPOL Annex VI Regulations for the prevention of air pollution from ships.
An updated work plan for the development of further guidelines and the development of energy efficiency frameworks for those ships not covered by the current EEDI regulations was also agreed at MEPC 63. 

Background and further information

In accordance with the MEPC 55 work plan (October 2009), MEPC 59
(July 2009) agreed to a package of technical and operational measures to improve energy efficiency and reduce GHG emissions from international shipping: Energy Efficiency Design Index for new ships (EEDI), Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) and Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI). 
Amendments to MARPOL Annex VI were adopted by Parties to MARPOL
Annex VI during MEPC 62 in July 2011 (resolution MEPC.203(62)), adding a new chapter 4 to Annex VI on Regulations on energy efficiency for ships to make mandatory the EEDI for new ships, and the SEEMP for all ships.  The regulations apply to all ships of 400 gross tonnage and above and are expected to enter into force on 1 January 2013.  However, under regulation 19, an Administration may waive the requirement for new ships of 400 gross tonnage and above from complying with the EEDI requirements.  This waiver may not be applied to ships above 400 gross tonnage for which the building contract is placed four years after the entry into force date of chapter 4.  The amendments to MARPOL Annex VI represent the first ever mandatory global GHG regime for an international industry sector or transport mode.
The adoption by IMO of mandatory reduction measures for all ships from 2013 and onwards will lead to significant emission reductions and also a striking cost saving for the shipping industry.  By 2020, up to 180 million tonnes of annual CO2 reductions are estimated from the introduction of the EEDI for new ships and the SEEMP for all ships in operation, a figure that, by 2030, will increase to
390 million tonnes of CO2 annually.  In other words, the reductions will in 2020 be between 9 and 16%, and by 2030 between 17 and 25% compared with business as usual.  The reduction measures will also result in a significant saving in fuel costs to the shipping industry, although these savings require deeper investments in more efficient ships and more sophisticated technologies than the business as usual scenario.  The annual fuel cost saving estimates states a staggering figure of $34 to 60 billion by 2020, and even more astonishing $85 – 150 billion by 2030.
The new chapter also includes a regulation on Promotion of technical co-operation and transfer of technology relating to the improvement of energy efficiency of ships, which requires Administrations, in co-operation with IMO and other international bodies, to promote and provide, as appropriate, support directly or through IMO to States, especially developing States, that request technical assistance.  It also requires the Administration of a Party to co-operate actively with other Parties, subject to its national laws, regulations and policies, to promote the development and transfer of technology and exchange of information to States, which request technical assistance, particularly developing States, in respect of the implementation of measures to fulfil the requirements of chapter 4.

Model Course for energy efficient operation ships

IMO, together with the World Maritime University (WMU) have been developing a model course on SEEMP promoting the energy efficient operation of ships.  The first draft of the model course was submitted to MEPC 62.  It provides general background on the climate change issue and IMO’s related work and aims at building the different operational and technical tools into a manageable course programme, which will promulgate best practice throughout all sectors of the industry.  The Course will help create benchmarks against which operators can assess their own performance.  The purpose of the IMO model courses is to assist training providers and their teaching staff in organizing and introducing new training courses, or in enhancing, updating or supplementing existing training material, so that the quality and effectiveness of the training courses may thereby be improved.
MEPC 62 agreed that the draft model course was an excellent start to providing a structured training course but that it required more work.  MEPC 63 recognized that the draft model course had been further developed to include some tutorial examples, but further work was needed to align it with the 2012 guidelines adopted at this session.



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