In 1997, a new annex was added to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL). The Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships (Annex VI) seek to minimize airborne emissions from ships (SOx, NOx, ODS, VOC) and their contribution to local and global air pollution and environmental problems. Annex VI entered into force on 19 May 2005 and a revised Annex VI with significant tighten emissions limits was adopted in October 2008 which entered into force on 1 July 2010.
The growth of world trade in the future represents a challenge to meeting a target for emissions required to achieve stabilization in global temperatures and so IMO has begun consideration of further technical and operational measures to enhance the energy efficiency of ships.
In 2007, international shipping was estimated to have contributed about 2.7% to the global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). In 2011, IMO adopted mandatory technical and operational energy efficiency measures which are expected to significantly reduce the amount of CO2 emissions from international shipping. These mandatory measures (EEDI/SEEMP) entered into force on 1 January 2013.
IMO has adopted important guidelines aimed at supporting implementation of the mandatory measures to increase energy efficiency and reduce GHG emissions from international shipping, paving the way for the regulations on EEDI and SEEMP to be smoothly implemented by Administrations and industry.
IMO has also adopted a resolution on Promotion of Technical Co-operation and Transfer of Technology relating to the Improvement of Energy Efficiency of Ships and is focusing its efforts on technical co-operation and capacity building to ensure smooth and effective implementation and enforcement of the new regulations worldwide. To that effect, IMO has been undertaking a series of workshops in all regions of the world on implementation of the measures to address GHG emissions from international shipping.
Reduction of GHG Emissions from Ships
IMO Update Study for the GHG Emissions Estimate for International Shipping
IMO, noting that the current estimate, contained in the Second IMO GHG Study (2009), does not take account of the economic downturn experienced globally since 2008, has initiated an update study of the GHG emissions estimate for international shipping, which is expected to be finalized in 2014.
The update Study would include current global emissions of GHGs and relevant substances emitted from ships of 100 GT and above, engaged in international transport and would provide the Committee with reliable and up-to-date information to base its decisions.
Market Based Measures
The MBM proposals under review range from a contribution or levy on all CO2 emissions from international shipping or only from those ships not meeting the EEDI requirement, via emission trading systems, to schemes based on a ship’s actual efficiency, both by design (EEDI) and operation (SEEMP).