IMO AT RIO+20
INFORMATIONS RESOURCES ON AIR POLLUTION AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING. This extensive bibliography provided by the MKC is regulary updated
In 1997 a new annex was added to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL). The Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships (Annex VI) seek to minimize airborne emissions from ships (SOx, NOx, ODS, VOC) and their contribution to global air pollution and environmental problems. Annex VI entered into force on 19 May 2005 and a revised Annex VI was adopted in October 2008 which entered into force on 1 July 2010.
In 2007 international shipping is estimated to have contributed about 2.7% to the global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). If climate is to be stabilized at no more than 2oC warming over pre-industrial levels by 2100 and emissions from shipping continue as projected, then they would constitute between 12% and 18% of the total CO2 emissions in 2050 that would be required to achieve stabilization by 2100. IMO has developed technical and operational energy efficiency measures to reduce the amount of CO2 emissions from international shipping. The growth of world trade in the future represents a challenge to meeting a target for emissions required to achieve stabilisation in global temperatures and so IMO continues to work on the development of market-based measures as a complimentary means of achieving the required target for emissions.
See also : Papers and Articles by IMO Staff